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Charles Correa: A Master of Housing and Urbanisation (PDF)



Charles Correa Housing And Urbanization Pdf Downloadl




If you are interested in architecture, urban design, or social issues, you might have heard of Charles Correa, one of the most influential architects of the 20th century. He was known for his innovative and humanistic approach to housing and urbanization, especially in developing countries like India. In this article, we will explore his life, work, and legacy, and how you can download his book "Housing and Urbanization" for free.




Charles Correa Housing And Urbanization Pdf Downloadl



Who is Charles Correa?




Charles Correa was born in 1930 in Secunderabad, India. He studied architecture at the University of Michigan and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He returned to India in 1958 and started his own practice in Bombay (now Mumbai). He designed many landmark buildings and projects across India and abroad, such as the Gandhi Smarak Sangrahalaya in Ahmedabad, the Bharat Bhavan in Bhopal, the Jawahar Kala Kendra in Jaipur, the British Council Building in Delhi, the Lisbon Ismaili Centre in Portugal, and the Champalimaud Centre for the Unknown in Lisbon.


What is his approach to housing and urbanization?




Correa was deeply concerned with the social and environmental aspects of architecture. He believed that architecture should respond to the needs, aspirations, and culture of the people who use it. He also advocated for low-cost, low-rise, high-density housing that could accommodate the diverse and growing population of India. He experimented with different typologies, materials, and technologies to create flexible and adaptable spaces that could be customized by the users. He also integrated climatic factors, such as ventilation, shading, and water harvesting, to create energy-efficient and comfortable buildings.


Correa was also involved in urban planning and policy making. He was appointed as the chief architect of New Bombay (now Navi Mumbai), a satellite city that was planned to decongest Bombay. He envisioned a polycentric city that would offer a variety of opportunities and amenities to its residents. He also chaired the National Commission on Urbanization, which was set up by Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi in 1985 to address the challenges of rapid urbanization in India. He proposed a holistic and decentralized approach that would empower local governments and communities to plan and manage their own urban development. He also designed several educational and research institutions that fostered creativity and innovation, such as the Indian Institute of Management in Bangalore, the Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics (IUCAA) in Pune, and the Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology (CCMB) in Hyderabad.


Why is his book important and relevant?




In 2000, Correa published his book "Housing and Urbanization", which documents over forty years of his work in these fields. The book is lavishly illustrated with more than 450 photographs, drawings, and original sketches that showcase his projects and ideas. The book also brings to the forefront timeless issues that are fundamental to architecture and urbanism, such as space, density, diversity, identity, participation, sustainability, and equity.


The book is a valuable resource for anyone who wants to learn from Correa's experience and vision. It is especially relevant today, when the world is facing unprecedented challenges of urbanization, climate change, poverty, and inequality. The book offers insights and inspiration for architects, planners, policy makers, students, and citizens who want to create better habitats for themselves and others.


Housing Projects by Charles Correa




In this section, we will look at some of the housing projects that Correa designed over the years. These projects demonstrate his innovative and humanistic approach to housing design.


Tube House




The Tube House was one of Correa's earliest projects, designed in 1961 for a low-income family in Ahmedabad. The house was based on a modular system of prefabricated concrete tubes that could be arranged in different configurations to suit the site and the user's needs. The tubes provided structural stability, thermal insulation, and natural ventilation. The house also had a courtyard that served as an outdoor living space and a source of light and air.


Previ House




The Previ House was part of an experimental housing project in Lima, Peru, initiated by the United Nations in 1969. The project invited 26 architects from around the world to design low-cost housing prototypes that could be replicated and adapted by the users. Correa's design consisted of a three-story concrete frame that could accommodate different spatial arrangements and extensions. The ground floor had a flexible plan that could be used for commercial or domestic purposes. The upper floors had bedrooms and bathrooms that opened onto balconies. The roof terrace had a kitchen and a dining area that could also be used for social gatherings.


Belapur Housing




The Belapur Housing was a large-scale housing project in New Bombay, designed in 1983 for the Maharashtra Housing and Area Development Authority (MHADA). The project aimed to provide affordable housing for low- and middle-income groups. Correa's design was based on a cluster concept that created small neighborhoods within the larger development. Each cluster had 40 to 70 units that were arranged around a central open space. The units varied in size and type, from one-room tenements to three-bedroom apartments. The units were also designed to be incrementally built and modified by the users according to their needs and preferences. The project also incorporated local materials, such as brick and stone, and vernacular elements, such as pitched roofs and jaalis.


Kanchanjunga Apartments




The Kanchanjunga Apartments was a high-rise residential building in Mumbai, designed in 1970 for a private developer. The building was one of the first examples of Correa's attempt to translate the traditional Indian bungalow into a vertical format. The building had 32 apartments that were stacked in four levels. Each apartment had a double-height living room that opened onto a large terrace garden. The terrace gardens acted as intermediate spaces that mediated between the interior and the exterior, as well as between the individual and the collective. The building also had a distinctive facade that expressed the structural system and the climatic response of the design.


Urbanization Projects by Charles Correa




In this section, we will look at some of the urbanization projects that Correa designed over the years. These projects demonstrate his visionary and holistic approach to urban design.


New Bombay




New Bombay was a satellite city that was planned in 1964 to decongest Bombay. Correa was appointed as the chief architect of the project in 1970. He proposed a polycentric city that would have several nodes of development, each with its own identity and character. He also envisioned a city that would be connected by mass transit systems, such as rail and bus, and have ample open spaces, such as parks and water bodies. He also designed several buildings and landmarks in New Bombay, such as the CIDCO Housing, the Artist Village, the NIFT Campus, and the CBD Belapur Railway Station.


National Commission on Urbanization




The National Commission on Urbanization was set up by Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi in 1985 to address the challenges of rapid urbanization in India. Correa chaired the commission and prepared a comprehensive report that outlined a new urban policy for the country. The report proposed a holistic and decentralized approach that would empower local governments and communities to plan and manage their own urban development. The report also recommended various measures to improve the quality of life in urban areas, such as providing basic services, upgrading slums, promoting mixed-use development, preserving heritage, enhancing mobility, and protecting the environment.


IUCAA




The IUCAA was conceived as a place where scientists and students could interact and collaborate on cutting-edge research in astronomy and astrophysics. Correa's design was inspired by the cosmic forms and symbols of ancient Indian astronomy. The campus consisted of a circular complex that housed the academic and administrative functions, and a linear complex that housed the residential and recreational functions. The circular complex had a central courtyard that contained a sundial, a water clock, and a celestial globe. The linear complex had a series of terraces that overlooked the surrounding landscape. The campus also had a library, an auditorium, a planetarium, and an observatory.


Conclusion




Charles Correa was one of the most influential architects of the 20th century. He was known for his innovative and humanistic approach to housing and urbanization, especially in developing countries like India. He designed many landmark buildings and projects that responded to the needs, aspirations, and culture of the people who used them. He also advocated for low-cost, low-rise, high-density housing that could accommodate the diverse and growing population of India. He also integrated climatic factors, such as ventilation, shading, and water harvesting, to create energy-efficient and comfortable buildings.


Correa was also involved in urban planning and policy making. He was appointed as the chief architect of New Bombay, a satellite city that was planned to decongest Bombay. He envisioned a polycentric city that would offer a variety of opportunities and amenities to its residents. He also chaired the National Commission on Urbanization, which was set up by Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi in 1985 to address the challenges of rapid urbanization in India. He proposed a holistic and decentralized approach that would empower local governments and communities to plan and manage their own urban development. He also designed several educational and research institutions that fostered creativity and innovation, such as the IUCAA.


Correa's work is a valuable resource for anyone who wants to learn from his experience and vision. It is especially relevant today, when the world is facing unprecedented challenges of urbanization, climate change, poverty, and inequality. His book "Housing and Urbanization" documents over forty years of his work in these fields. The book is lavishly illustrated with more than 450 photographs, drawings, and original sketches that showcase his projects and ideas. The book also brings to the forefront timeless issues that are fundamental to architecture and urbanism, such as space, density, diversity, identity, participation, sustainability, and equity.


If you want to download his book for free, you can visit this link: https://www.udri.org/portfolio-items/housing-urbanisation-charles-correa/. You can also find more information about his work on his official website: http://charlescorrea.net/.


FAQs




Here are some frequently asked questions about Charles Correa and his work:


Q: When did Charles Correa die?




A: Charles Correa died on June 16, 2015 in Mumbai at the age of 84.


Q: What awards did Charles Correa receive?




A: Charles Correa received many awards and honors for his work, such as the Padma Shri (1972), the Aga Khan Award for Architecture (1988), the Praemium Imperiale (1994),